The two articles that follow were written by Larry Loen, WO7R, the President of CADXA for those interested in learning about the world of DX in ham radio. The first contains basic information about this popular niche of the hobby. The second explores how hams with a Technician class license and limited radio operating privileges can enjoy this part of the hobby until they may choose to upgrade their license.
Central Arizona DX Association
Sooner or later, most amateur radio licensees think about “working DX” – that is, working stations at great distances away from your station. If so, great, you’ve come to the right place.
But, how to get started? Like most things in life, DXing comes without instructions. We’ve provided a few.
Do you have an amateur radio license? You need one. See here: http://www.arrl.org/shop/Getting-Started-with-Ham-Radio for one of many resources. The following assumes a General Class license or higher and a station that is able to transmit a signal on HF frequencies.
What DXing is – Basics and beyond
The basic essence of DX is simple. You tune your receiver to a frequency and hear an unusual call sign (maybe TX5A) calling CQ. You answer, just like it was your buddy next door. The DX station (TX5A in this example) gives back your call sign, just as you normally expect. You exchange signal reports and, in many cases, you are done. Or, maybe you chat a while. In the lingo of ham radio, you have just “worked” TX5A.
It really can be that simple. Why? Because some stations are members of countries like the US, Japan, England, even South Africa, that are commonly heard. So, working them can be exactly like working someone in, say, Indiana.
It is not always so basic
However, there are places in the world where there are very few amateur operators. Some, like Clipperton Island, have no permanent population at all. That means, for long stretches, places like Clipperton are simply not on the air. Because of this, contacting Clipperton, sooner or later, is a prize that any DXer worth his or her salt is going to want. And, it also means that if there is someone on Clipperton Island, hundreds if not thousands of stations will all want to work that station right now. That means the Clipperton amateur has a fairly limited time compared to the immense need of those many thousands. What typically happens, then, is something called a “pile-up”. “Everyone” tries to call that one station on Clipperton. At the very start, pile-ups seem forbidding, confusing places, and it is hard to follow who is talking where and when. Well, I’m here to tell you that you can ignore them for a while. Learn a little DX lore and have fun doing other things until you are ready for pile-ups.
Figure 1 - A Typical, Big Pileup
Awards, the Newcomer to DXing, and Having Fun from Day One
DXing might seem forbidding to some simply because it seems dominated by awards. Worse, there are well-known awards that are, in fact, very difficult to achieve, even with a good station. You’ve probably already heard about the Honor Roll and how it can take “years and years”.My advice to someone starting out? Ignore all that! Sure, you'll hear a lot about the "big time" awards and "big time" DXers, but nobody is born being able to achieve that kind of thing.
Fortunately, there are rewarding and fun things you can do with the skills, experience, and station you have. This is true even if that is basically "no experience", "no DX skills" and "no station". Worry about the “big time” later. Have fun today, and start where you are. We all did, whether we are “big time” today or not.
For most of my DX "career" I had a very simple station (e.g. G5RV antenna at 35 feet, 100 watts). But, I got results I was very proud of, and had fun doing it.
The trick is to set achievable goals.
There are two basic ways to go about DXing. Many amateurs track both.
1. Work “Countries”.
Mostly, countries are places like India, China, South Africa. Officially, we call them “entities” because our DX list also counts places like Hawaii as an entity. Why? Because it is so far away from the US mainland that basic fairness and common sense required it to be separate. Accordingly, it is an entity just as England is an entity. But, DXers often call Hawaii a country anyhow even though we all know it has no seat in the United Nations. Most DXers are very keen to work countries.
2. Work Zones.
A long time ago, the world was somewhat arbitrarily divided into 40 zones. DXers who are interested in working zones usually know what zone a station is in and whether they need that zone. You’ll want to look into zones and decide if you want to chase them, too.
Goals for the beginning DXer that are fun and reasonable include:
1. General DXCC (officially, we call it “Mixed”). This is about working and confirming contacts with 100 countries. This feat should be available to even the most limited station. DXCC means “DX Century Club” and it is run by the American Radio Relay League (ARRL).
2. General Worked All Zones (“WAZ”). Working and confirming contacts with all 40 zones is not as easy as it sounds. You can work 100 countries and leave the farthest away places untouched. With zones, you must go all over the world. Still, it is something a modest station should be able to manage. WAZ is run by CQ Magazine.
After those, you can look at other awards:
1. 4BDXCC. This is not an official award, but working and confirming DXCC on 10 meters, 15 meters, 20 meters, and 40 meters can be done from a modest station. The actual award is "5 Band DXCC" and requires 100 DXCC confirmations on 80 meters in addition to the other four. Some very eminent DXers don't have the 80 meter award, either. Even though it has no official award, "4BDXCC" still represents a real accomplishment. And, you can have four individual awards to show for it, one for each band.
2. Basic DXCC Challenge. You have to work and confirm 1,000 total contacts for the various DXCC "entities" (countries) in many amateur bands. So, if you work France on 40, 20, 15, 17 and 10 meters, that's five entities earned. Again, this can be achieved with no real presence on 80 meters.
I emphasize 80 meters because a good antenna on 80 meters is a challenge in a variety of ways. You can work all 50 US states with a poor antenna on 80. You’ll barely reach England from the West Coast with a poor setup. It is just less forgiving than other bands. If, however, you can do 80 meters, and I mean 80 meters that gets you far-flung DX, so much the better. But, if you are HOA bound or starting out, you might find it easier to leave 80 meters for later. By the way, you may have noticed the “worked and confirmed” part. “Confirming” is covered later in this paper.
Sunspots and DXing
That covers a great deal of what you need to know to get started. But, as you may already know, HF propagation is influenced by the sunspot cycle and how many sunspots the sun has had lately. The more sunspots, the easier DXing is. Why? The higher the sunspot count, the more bands like 10, 12, and 15 meters are open. In higher sunspots, working the world on modest setups on 10 meters is downright likely. In low sunspots, working anything on 10 can be a challenge. But, 40, 30, 20, 17, and even 15 meters are usefully available year in and year out. So, pay attention to current conditions, but know that even as a newcomer, you can work a lot of interesting DX at any point of the sunspot cycle.
Pile-ups and What to Do
Pile-ups happen when a sufficiently rare station comes on and everyone knows where the rare one is. This is pretty typical because if a “rare one” is on, the word gets out quickly. And so you have what you see in Figure 1 above. Here, the “rare” station sits on one frequency and everyone else spreads out in the frequencies just above where the rare DX is transmitting.
What should the newcomer do? Avoid them for a while. You’re new, so you “need everything” and there is something else nearby that is very easy to work or has a very modest pile-up that even a beginner can figure out.
There are a million tricks to working a pile-up but the basic game is the same: Where is the DX listening? Does the DX listen at the same place each time or move around? If so, how? But, the more basic, not-so-rare stations usually work “on frequency” or listen always only one or five kilohertz up (higher in frequency). Most will tell you (e.g. “TX5A listening up 5”). These are what you want for a while.Learning how to make contact in a big time pile-up takes a long time and even experienced operators get frustrated in many a pile-up. So, start with the “no pile-up” or “small pile-up” stations and then work your way to larger ones as you learn the game. Rarely, you can even get lucky and work the rare DX before the pile-up gets large. If the pile-up sounds like what you are used to, give it a try and see.
Figure 2 - Basic, Easy Pileup
However, some pile-ups are much larger than they seem. You don’t always hear all the stations because radio wave propagation is so variable. There will be times you can hear a rare DX station and be unable to hear someone in Colorado. And, if the DX is rare, there can be a lot of stations you can’t hear at such times. Knowing when a pile-up is hopeless takes experience. And, as you gain experience, fewer pile-ups are hopeless. But, as a beginner, if you find you aren’t enjoying the pile-up, if you can’t really figure out what’s happening, or if you discover you’ve sat there for 30 minutes or more, it’s a good sign that you might want to tune up the band and find something more to your liking.
What to Buy
“What to buy” is as individual as the DXer. But, you might not want to spend money on a big station when you’re getting started.
The Radio (the “rig”)
You can spend just about any amount of money on an HF rig. But, the newcomer is usually best served by starting out more modestly. Any basic HF rig that is even 15 years old can be a decent starter rig. Ask CADXA members for advice. You’ll get a lot of it if you ask, but they can help you evaluate what’s out there. The main thing is to be very sure the radio can work “split” – that is, listen on one frequency and transmit on another. Rarer DX stations tend to work this way. Almost any HF radio 15 years old or newer will work split.
Here again, it probably pays to start out modestly. Simple wire antennas (antennas consisting of wire and little more) can get you going. Popular choices include a so-called “fan dipole” for 20 and 40 meters (with an antenna tuner, you can also get 15 meters), a G5RV (multi-band antenna with an antenna tuner), a Windom (which is often actually an offset fed dipole), and many, many more.
The most basic wire antennas are good to start with because: 1) they can be assembled very cheaply yourself, 2) you don’t need fancy test equipment (a basic SWR meter can be used to “trim” them to resonance), 3) mistakes, if any, are cheap to remedy, 4) most require just a single support, 5) many can be put on the air in a single afternoon by a beginner, and 6) most don’t require extensive radial systems (a set of wires on the ground or elevated that connect at the base of the antenna). Radials aren’t necessarily that big a deal, but avoiding them at the start will save time and energy.
Antennas I got by with in the early days included: A 40 meter dipole with an apex at 25 feet, a G5RV, a commercial vertical with an inadequate radial system. This last was a poor antenna, but it worked “good enough” at the time. And, I had enough fun working what I could. When I ran out of fun stuff to do, there was ample time to learn about better antenna systems.What I have today is far different, but I have also been DXing a long time and I can both spend more money and successfully deploy more complex antenna systems.
How to Substitute Skill for Money
It is certainly true that if you spend big money, you’ll eventually get big results. I now have the 70 foot tower with a rotatable, multi-band Yagi on top of it. I have a powerful amplifier when I need it to boost my signal. All of these are “force multipliers”. That is, I can work more DX in the same amount of time than someone with the same level of skill can work at a more modest station.
But, hold onto that thought. I said “same level of skill.” Life does favor the big station, but it favors those with skill, too. If I had no skills and the same station, I’d work a lot less DX. I didn’t buy the big station until I was ready. Most of us do the same. It’s easy to spend a lot of money and not get what you think you should. Get the skills first and then the money really helps.
A great DXer I met, the late WB2V, came to my town and put up an extremely modest station in his apartment. With an indoor antenna and 100 watts he was working DX I could not touch. How? He knew a lot of “tricks” to get rare DX, especially in pile-ups. So, I asked him how he did it and he spent a very fruitful hour showing me how to work a pile-up. I never looked back. Skill matters, too.
So, read books like The Complete DX’er, by Bob Locher.
If you have a modest station, figure out how to make the most of it. Each 2 dB improvement in your signal (yes, you can get this even with a modest setup, at least a couple of times) will net you more stations with the same skill.
Get on digital modes like FT8, RTTY and PSK (many DXers don’t and the pile-ups are often more manageable or non-existent).
Get your Extra Class license (many DX stations avoid the U.S. General Class bands and it helps not to compete with the many U.S. amateurs that can’t be bothered to get the Extra Class license).Learn CW (Morse Code). A lot of DX stations still love CW and, more importantly, this is a place where skill can win. A lot of SSB pile-ups are really just power games – if you don’t have the power, you have little chance of winning whatever your skill level. CW is almost always about skill in the end. The modest station usually has a chance in there somewhere.
You won’t be into DXing very long before you hear about something called “FT8”. FT8 is a very new way to make digital QSOs that is taking the amateur world by storm. There has literally never been anything like it. Some long-time amateurs don’t like it, but my recommendation is to ignore them. There is just too much DX available on FT8 for anyone to ignore. This applies with double force to the newcomer.
The main issue with FT8 is . . . getting started. You must typically add some gear to your rig (mostly, connecting your rig to some kind of PC sound card). Because rigs vary so much, there is no way to begin to describe how to do this here. But, CADXA members will be happy to help you figure it out for your rig.
There are stations that are easy to work on FT8 and stations that are hard to work. There will also be stations you want that are “on” your frequency band, but you can’t hear them because there are 20 stations in New England between you and the DX. Despite some difficulties, FT8 is a great way for a newcomer with a modest station to rack up countries in a hurry, including some rare ones.
Confirmations and QSL Cards
You may have noticed we talked about “worked and confirmed” when talking about the basic awards. To work someone is to have a two-way contact with them. Strictly speaking, you don’t have to confirm anything. But, most DXers want various awards. To get awards, especially the better ones, nobody is just going to take your word for it. You need to confirm the stations you worked. Not every contact, mind you, but at least enough of them so that you can claim the award. For instance, you probably will work Japan on 20 meters very early in your DX career. Japan has a huge number of amateurs and you’ll soon find out how easy it is to work them, especially on 20 meters. But, to claim Japan for the Mixed (General) DXCC, you need to confirm only one of them.
Confirmations have long been done with specialized postcards called QSL cards. The term “QSL” comes from a set of CW Q-signal abbreviations and means “confirmed”. So, a QSL card is a “confirmation card”. Usually, if you send a QSL card to a DX station with a self-addressed return envelope and money for postage, they will then send one back to you. It is their confirmation card that you can turn in for an award. There’s much more detail to learn about effective QSLing, including computerized QSLing, but you can learn about that later.
Confirmations and LOTW
You won’t be DXing long before you hear about the Logbook of the World (LOTW). This is an electronic confirmation system sponsored by the American Radio Relay League (ARRL). The essence is that you upload your log (in whole or in part) and hope that other stations do so also. If they do, you will get a “match” for your DX QSO with them. You lose the satisfaction of gaining a physical card to commemorate the QSO, but you gain a lot of convenience and save a great deal of money over time. You can still collect the post card if you want it. Usually, if you get the LOTW confirmation, you will likely find that good enough.
It is a little irritating to set up an LOTW account because the ARRL is very serious about the security of their system. However, once you get through the initial setup it is very easy to use. If you pick the right computerized logging program, it can even be automatic.
Contact the CADXA (see elsewhere on this website) or just come to one of our meetings. We can get you going into a world of fun where you can, yourself, reach out and touch someone half a world away.
DXing with a Technician Class License
By Larry Loen, WO7R
If you have a Technician license burning a hole in your pocket and you’ve decided to give DXing a try, welcome. Members of the CADXA can give you a leg up.
However, the first thing one must confess is that DXing is easier with a General Class license. That’s why our Getting Started in DXing article emphasizes at least a General Class license. It is no secret that HF DXing has motivated tens of thousands of hams to upgrade to General or even Extra.
But, so what? What if you aren’t ready to do that yet? What if you just don’t care about upgrading? Is DXing impossible? Not really. But, DXing can take a very different shape for the Tech.
Limits for the Tech and What Can Be Done About Them
The primary thing for Techs who want to do DXing is to understand that HF DXing is compromised a bit for Techs. This does not mean you can do no DXing on HF; to the contrary, there is DX to be had. But, it is to say that you may find yourself wanting and needing to be active in VHF and above for large swaths of time as a Technician. The license is simply structured that way.
However, there is also DX to be had on VHF and above. You can easily spend all your time and energy on these frequencies. Some amateurs do. But, it is simply a fact that there are more DXers on HF and that VHF DXing is a little different animal. We’ll cover both from the Tech perspective.
In brief, you have two major options:
Maximizing what can be done with the limited HF privileges given to Techs.
Doing the ordinary work that any amateur can do to be active and successful on VHF and up.
HF DXing and the Tech
Let’s talk about what can be done as a Tech on HF.
First off, we will assume you are primarily interested (on HF) in DXCC. DXCC is a list of “countries” (including things like Hawaii, Guam and Gibraltar that just makes more sense to count separately). The goal is to work as many of these (currently around 340 of them) as one can.
The Tech has full privileges in two slices of ten meters:
28.000 MHz to 28.300 MHzCW, RTTY, FT8, Other Digital, 200 watts maximum
28.300 MHz to 29.700 MHzCW, Phone, Image, 200 watts maximum
The main issue for the would-be DXer is that 10 meters is a slave to the sunspot cycle. You can, with very modest equipment, work the entire world on 10 meters in its best years. Unfortunately, in the eleven year sunspot cycle, that may be only three of eleven years. In those other eight or so years, you can also work some really satisfying DX in the summer months using Sporadic E. In recent years, hams are better organized than ever to make this interesting. But, it does mean that there are long stretches of time where there simply is no HF DXing available to Techs on 10.
Peak Sunspot Years
A peak year for ten meters is any year that “F” layer propagation will support world-wide communications. When there is a sunspot peak, it is easy to discover. For one thing, the peaks can be reasonably predicted in advance. The sunspot cycle is a little irregular but we know that the next good years are likely to be around 2023, plus or minus a few years. For another, everyone will be talking about it. DX spotting networks will be full of ten meter spots. In those years, some really unbelievable things can take place. The author has done things like worked from Minnesota to Europe on a dummy load (by mistake, but it happened). Ask around and you can hear some very implausible-sounding tales that are, despite appearances, true.
Over a single peak, you might work as many as 150 DXCC countries, maybe even 200 DXCC countries. That’s a respectable total.
The problem is, of course, what do you do the rest of the time as a Tech?
As you may already know, Sporadic E is an annual phenomenon that is strongly associated with summer in Arizona. For reasons ill-understood, the E layer has what we call “clouds” of ionization that come and go – often in a matter of minutes, but support something like a 1500 mile radius of communication while it lasts. Even better, sometimes one can find two or even more of these clouds that line up so that you can work much farther DX than one would expect from a single “hop”. Historically, there have been favorable openings that were missed simply because nobody knew they were there.
Nowadays, thanks to FT8, if there is a chance at multiple “clouds”, amateurs are now much more likely to find and exploit such openings. The reason is simple – a lot of amateurs “hang out” on FT8 and as a result, if someone else is on, you have a great opportunity to just plain hear them – and work them. On-line facilities like PSKReporter and DXMAPS also enable openings – and the makings of potential openings – visible.
It may take several seasons, but it appears possible for a well-equipped station on 10 meters to make at least a basic DXCC just on the summertime sporadic E season. (There is also a lesser “E” season in the winter). From Arizona, even 50 DXCC in a year is a major accomplishment and a fun thing to chase.
Also available is propagation that we experience primarily to South America. This “over the equator” propagation can happen any old time, and as a practical matter is most often discovered in contests. This will enable working some of the Caribbean and pretty much all of South America over time on 10 meters.
CW, HF, and the Technician
If you are interested in Morse Code, there are useful slices of frequencies available to your license on other bands than 10 meters.
80m3.525 MHz to 3.600 MHzCW only
40m7.025 MHz to7.125 MHzCW only
15m21.025 MHz to 21.200 MHzCW only
In truth, this is a hidden resource as many Techs (past and present) avoid Morse Code. Still, 40 meters at sunspot minimums and 15 meters at sunspot peaks (including years when 10m is still closed) can provide world-wide DX on nearly a daily basis, year in and year out. It is possible, in theory, to gain the DXCC Honor Roll with just these frequencies; even given you are limited to 200 watts. In practice, few do so, but it is at least possible. The effort to learn Morse Code is still worthwhile as major DXpeditions are still dominated by CW. There are also some very substantial CW only contests. The biggest issue in learning CW (there are many resources to learn) is that one must spend a little time, daily is best, to become proficient. After a few weeks or perhaps a month or two, that’s all done forever and you can profit on the air.
The main headache with CW as a Tech is that one is still losing a great many valuable HF frequencies, especially including 20 meters. Twenty meters is the crown jewel of DXing. Learning CW and not having privileges on 20 will quickly motivate one to consider upgrading.
The other issue is that you can’t use FT8 on these frequencies as a Tech. As this is written, that is a very substantial deficit. About half of all QSOs are on FT8 these days.
If you take the trouble to learn Code, or already know it, talk to CADXA members about how to exploit this as a Tech. There is still a lot of DX to be worked, especially on 40 meters, while you decide whether you wish to upgrade. If you don’t choose to learn code (many amateurs do not), you will either be faced with upgrading, working more on VHF, or doing without.
HF and Worked All States
Another worthy goal for the DXing Technician is to pursue Worked All States (WAS). Many HF DXers, who have been at it far too long, have forgotten how challenging this can be, especially to the newcomer to Ham Radio. But, you’re just starting out. You have much to learn about propagation and when the bands are open to (say) Maine versus Hawaii. Learn that and you will also know a lot about when the bands are open to Europe and to China.
The aforementioned Sporadic E makes it plausible, especially from Arizona, to do a Worked All States on 10 meters. If you learn CW, you can add 80, 40, and 15 meters WAS to your “bag”.
Six Meters and the Technician
In some respects, this is the best tool in the Technician’s bag. Many call six meters the Magic Band. Most HF rigs made over the last ten years or so include a capability for six meters. While a sky topping tower always helps, there are still plenty of things to be discovered on six meters with quite modest setups. When it is open, it need not take a lot of power to get your where you want to go. I have worked Europe on CW on six meters with 100 watts. This is hardly an everyday event and I have a good antenna. But, it shows what can happen.
More to the point, this is the lowest frequency band in which you can use full amateur power. You will learn that 10 meters is open more often and longer, but sometimes, the power difference will matter. Full power also means you can exploit things like Meteor Scatter (good for essentially the entire Western US and Mexico) to good effect.
Another thing that makes six useful and special is that the DXing goals can be expanded. True, you can still do Worked All States and DXCC, but you can add an award called VUCC. Long ago, the world was divided into “grid squares” in a system known as the Maidenhead system. For decades now, amateurs in the six meter band have avidly chased “grids” as eagerly as they chase anything else. VUCC is the award given for collecting grids. A good grid score is a mark of distinction and a level playing field. An amateur in Rome can collect a lot of DXCCs because many countries are close by. In Arizona, not so much. But, they are essentially equal when it comes to collecting grids. For the beginner on six, chasing grids as a primary focus is an excellent goal.
Whatever you can do on ten meters, you can (in theory) do on six meters. The truth is, though, that Sporadic E will be open more often and longer on 10 meters than 6 meters. Ten will have “F” propagation in peak years while six might miss out altogether. But, VUCC is available for six meters and up, and that is a substantial compensation. Collecting grids is a great pastime for Techs and has been pretty much forever.
While we have spent less time here than in describing HF opportunities, those amateurs that decide to remain Technicians often specialize in six meters.
The other nice thing about six meters is that you can use FT8 just as you can on 10 meters. A lot of opportunity is available on FT8.
2 Meters and Up
Beyond this are the higher bands and, in truth, they are quite specialized as far as DX goes. You may, of course, enjoy 2 meter FM with minimal equipment. But, as far as DXing goes, you will want specialized equipment to do DXing on any band from 144 MHz and higher. You will also need, as a practical matter, to be free of HOA restrictions. Things you can experience on the higher bands include tropospheric ducting, meteor scatter, and especially EME (Earth Moon Earth) communications. You already have the license to do all of these things, and at full power. But they are more specialized and the skill to participate there is beyond the scope of a tutorial. A lot of it has to be “made” instead of just bought off the shelf. That said, DXing, particularly via EME, can be immensely satisfying. A 400,000 mile round trip is the ultimate DX experience. We have members that do this kind of DXing also. Just ask.